Early years in machine translation

Memoirs and biographies of pioneers


Edited by W. John Hutchins


Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000

[Studies in the History of the Language Sciences, vol.97]

ISBN: 90 272 4586; 1 55619 013 3

[For copyright reasons, the contents of this volume are not available online; contact the publisher]


Table of contents


Preface                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   vii

Common abbreviations                                                                                                                                                                                                         x

Acknowledgements, Cyrillic transliteration                                                                                                                                                                      xi

The first decades of machine translation: overview, chronology, sources – John Hutchins                                                                                    1

Warren Weaver and the launching of MT: brief biographical note – John Hutchins                                                                                              17

Erwin Reifler and machine translation at the University of Washington – Lew R. Micklesen                                                                                21

Early research at M.I.T.: in search of adequate theory – Victor H. Yngve                                                                                                                 39

Machine translation at Harvard – Anthony G. Oettinger                                                                                                                                              73

The Georgetown project and Leon Dostert: recollections of a young assistant – Muriel Vasconcellos                                                              87

Is FAHQ(M)T possible? Memories of Paul L. Garvin and other MT colleagues – Christine A. Montgomery                                                     97

The early days of GAT-SLC – Michael Zarechnak                                                                                                                                                        111

Machine translation: just a question of finding the right programming language? – Antony F. R. Brown                                                          129

From Serna to Systran – Peter Toma                                                                                                                                                                                135

My early years in machine translation – Winfred P. Lehmann                                                                                                                                     147

David G. Hays – Martin Kay                                                                                                                                                                                              165

Gilbert W. King and the USAF Translator – John Hutchins                                                                                                                                        171

Translation and the structure of language – Sydney M. Lamb                                                                                                                                    177

Pioneering MT in the Soviet Union – Olga S. Kulagina                                                                                                                                                197

Machine translation and formal linguistics in the USSR – Igor A. Mel’čuk                                                                                                              205

My memoirs of MT in the Soviet Union – Tat’jana N. Mološnaja                                                                                                                              227

MT in the former USSR and in the Newly Independent States (NIS): pre-history, Romantic era, prosaic time – Raimund G. Piotrovskij       233

Machine translation: early years in the USSR – Jurij N. Marčuk                                                                                                                                 243

The beginnings of MT – Andrew D. Booth and Kathleen H. V. Booth                                                                                                                      253

R. H. Richens: translation in the NUDE – Karen Sparck-Jones                                                                                                                                    263

Margaret Masterman – Yorick Wilks                                                                                                                                                                                279

Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: a philosopher’s contribution to machine translation – John Hutchins                                                                                 299

Silvio Ceccato and the correlational grammar – Ernst von Glasersfeld                                                                                                                       313

Early MT in France – Maurice Gross                                                                                                                                                                                325

Bernard Vauquois’ contribution to the theory and practice of building MT systems: a historical perspective – Christian Boitet                  331

Pioneer work in machine translation in Czechoslovakia – Zdeněk Kirschner                                                                                                            349

Alexander Ljudskanov – Elena Paskaleva                                                                                                                                                                       361

Memoirs of a survivor – Hiroshi Wada                                                                                                                                                                            377

Index of names                                                                                                                                                                                                                     387

Index of subjects                                                                                                                                                                                                                  394


Location of photographs

                Participants at US conferences                                                                                                                                                                          xii

                Weaver, Reifler, Yngve, Oettinger                                                                                                                                                                    16

                Dostert, Garvin, Zarechnak, Toma                                                                                                                                                                    146

                Brown, Lehmann, lamb                                                                                                                                                                                        196

                Participants at USSR conference; Mel’čuk, Mološnaja, Reformatskij                                                                                                         232

                Marčuk, Piotrowski, Booth                                                                                                                                                                                 252

                Richens, Masterman, Ceccato                                                                                                                                                                           298

                Sgall, Wada, Vauquois                                                                                                                                                                                        386