Bart Papegaaij and Klaus Schubert

TEXT COHERENCE
IN TRANSLATION

1988

FORIS PUBLICATIONS

Dordrecht - Holland/Providence Rl - U.S.A.

 

(Distributed Language Translation 3)

 

[copyright Mouton de Gruyter]

 

Contents

Foreword 8

Chapter 1. Text coherence in machine translation

An appraisal of the problem and some prerequisites for its solution 9

1.1.             Text and context 11

1.2.             Text linguistics at a glance 13

1.3.             Distributed Language Translation 15

1.4.             Some terms and concepts of grammar 17

Chapter 2. Clues and devices of text coherence

A practical analysis 20

2.1. English to Esperanto: a sample translation 21

2.1.1.                The text 21

2.1.2.                Circumstantial information 23

2.1.3.                A superstructure of text 24

2.1.4.                  A close-up of some translation steps 26

2.1.5.                Conceptual proximity 29

2.1.6.                Tense, mood, aspect and voice 32

2.1.7.                Adding explicitness 35

2.1.8.                  Theme and rheme, repetition of words and syntagmata 35

2.1.9.                Pronominal reference 37

2.1.10.            Names, terms, abbreviations 40

2.1.11.            Voice and markedness 41

2.1.12.              Prominence and deep-case structure 44

2.1.13.            Rhetorical patterns 46

2.1.14.            Stylistic changes 47

2.1.15.            Conclusion 48

2.2. Deictic reference 50

2.2.1.                 Pronouns and translation 51

2.2.2.                 Pronouns and text coherence 53

2.2.3.                 Syntactic restrictions 56

2.2.4.                Syntactic redundancy 58

2.2.5.                  Syntactic rules and semantic features 63

2.2.6.                The inadequacy of syntactic and semantic features 66

2.2.7.                Focus 67

2.2.8.                Speech acts 72

2.2.9.                Conclusion 72

2.3. Content word reference 74

2.3.1.                Lexical variation 75

2.3.2.                Reference identity and translation 76

2.3.3.                Indefinite versus definite reference 78

2.3.4.                Directing the search 80

2.3.5.                Definiteness without modification 82

2.3.6.                Identity of sense or reference 82

2.3.7.                Types of definite reference 85

2.3.8.                Searching for reference 87

2.3.9.                Conclusion 90

2.4. Communicative functions: theme and rheme 92

2.4.1.                Thematic progression 94

2.4.2.                Analyzing thematic progression 99

2.4.3.                Given and new 102

2.4.4.                Focusing rules 106

2.4.5.                Breaking expectations, reintroduction of concepts 109

2.4.6.                The complete pattern 120

2.4.7.                Thematic patterns as a summary mechanism 122

2.4.8.                The complete pattern, continued 123

2.4.9.                Conclusion 127

2.5. Reduction to verbal elements 128

2.5.1.                Case grammar 128

2.5.2.                The verb as central element 130

2.5.3.                Nominalized verbal elements 134

2.5.4.                Some sample analyses 135

2.5.5.                  Using extended expectations to solve definite reference 140

2.5.6. Coherence through 'deep' reference 141

2.5.7.      Translating metaphorical expressions 142

2.5.8 When is a word a verb? 143

2.5.9 Finding parallel structures 145

2.5.10 Conclusion 147

2.6. Rhetorical structures and logical connections 148

2.6.1.                Rhetorical patterns 148

2.6.2.                Logical connectives 154

2.6.3.                Conclusion 156

2.7. Towards the translation of text coherence 158

Chapter 3. Text coherence with translation grammar 159

3.1.     On the translatability of language units 160

3.2.     Coherence of entities 167

3.2.1 .Lexeme choice 167

3.2.2. Deixis and reference 170

3.3. Coherence of focus 173

3.3.1.                How 'free' is word order? 174

3.3.2.                Communicative syntagma ordering 176

3.3.3.                  Grammatical features determined by syntagma ordering 177

3.3.4. Excursus on word order in dependency syntax 182

3.4.     Coherence of events 184

3.5.     Pragmatics - an escape from text grammar? 189

 

3.5.1.                The kind of translation-relevant pragmatic knowledge 190

3.5.2.                Full understanding? 194

3.5.3.                Knowledge representation 196

3.6. Towards implementation 198

Index 200

References 206