A Report by the Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee, Division of Behavioral Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council.

(Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council, 1966.)

Chairman: John R.Pierce

Human Translation      1

Types of Translator Employment      2

English as the Language of Science    4

Time Required for Scientists to Learn Russian      5

Translation in the United States Government      6

Number of Government Translators      7

Amount Spent for Translation     9

Is There a Shortage of Translators or Translation?      11

Regarding a Possible Excess of Translation      13

The Crucial Problems of Translation      16

The Present State of Machine Translation      19

Machine-Aided Translation at Mannheim and Luxembourg     25

Automatic Language Processing and Computational Linguistics      29

Avenues to Improvement of Translation      32
Recommendations      34


1.                 Experiments in Sight Translation and Full Translation      35

2.                 Defense Language Institute Course in Scientific Russian      37

3.                 The Joint Publications Research Service      39

4.        Public Law 480 Translations      41

5.       Machine Translations at the Foreign Technology Division, U.S. Air Force Systems Command      43

6.        Journals Translated with Support by the National Science Foundation      45

7.       Civil Service Commission Data on Federal Translators      50

8.       Demand for and Availability of Translators      54
       Cost Estimates of Various Types of Translation      57

10.      An Experiment in Evaluating the Quality of Translations      67

11.     Types of Errors Common in Machine Translation      76

12.     Machine-Aided Translation at the Federal Armed Forces Translation Agency, Mannheim, Germany      79

13.      Machine-Aided Translation at the European Coal and Steel Community, Luxembourg     87

14.     Translation Versus Postediting of Machine Translation      91

15.      Evaluation by Science Editors and Joint Publications Research Service and Foreign Technology Division Translations       102

16.     Government Support of Machine-Translation Research      107
17.      Computerized  Publishing       113

18.       Relation Between Programming Languages and Linguistics        118

19.       Machine Translation and  Linguistics        121

20.       Persons Who Appeared Before the Committee       124